“Things are getting worse day by day” – an interview with Uyghur Muslim “Mr X”

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An elderly Uyghur woman – Image credit: Sheila

In a recent post I mentioned about the oppression of the Uyghur Muslims in China – a minority who face economic, social, cultural, political and religious oppression under the Chinese government. Whilst China is not known by any means as a land of religious freedom, the plight of the Uyghurs is very much under-published. In this article, I’m going to expand on the Uyghur issue – the whos, hows and whys surrounding the issue – and share the Uyghurs’ story.

I’ve been fortunate to be able to interview an Uyghur Muslim living in exile from China to help give a real insight into the Uyghur crisis. He told me what it’s like for Uyghurs back home, including his family, and given me an insight into why the People’s Republic of China is targeting Uyghur Muslims. So here’s the background and his testimony.

Who are the Uyghurs?

The Uyghurs are one of China’s religious, ethnic and cultural minorities – one of 56 ethnic groups in China. The two main groups of Muslims in China are the Hui and the Uyghurs. There is a small number of Uyghur Christians but the majority of Uyghurs are Muslim. Overall, the Uyghurs constitute the largest non-Chinese group of Muslims in China today. They live predominantly in the North Western region of Xinjiang (translated as “new territory”). This area was formerly the free independent State of East Turkestan until the Mao Communist Party of China (CPC) took over the country in 1949 (see here for more information). In the 18th century, the area was also previously ruled under the Qing dynasty. Xinjiang borders Tibet, India, Russia, Afghanistan and Pakistan and its population is nowadays divided mainly between Uyghurs (45%) and Han Chinese (40%). Today, there are around 10.2 million Uyghurs in Xinjiang (according the latest available figures from China’s 2000 census).

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Map of China and the North West region of Xinjiang (East Turkestan) – Image credit: www.futureatlas.com

The Uyghur are Turkic and are not ethnically, linguistically or culturally “Chinese”. As a Turkic group, they are more Central Asian than East Asian. As an ethnic group, they see themselves, like the Tibetans, as colonised by the Chinese. I asked Mr X how he defines himself in terms of nationality and culture and this was his response:

Many Uyghurs out of the country, they describe themselves as Uyghur from Eastern Turkestan. Since we still not get our independence, when somebody asks my identity, I will tell them I am Uyghur from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. So, culturally and nationally, I define myself as Uyghur with Chinese citizenship.

When East Turkestan was seized by China, the Uyghurs were promised autonomy but the reality is that whilst it is listed as an autonomous region, Uyghurs suffer repression. The Uyghur people want a break from what they see as Chinese colonialism. Some Uyghurs want a free independent State (East Turkestan), whilst others simply want more autonomy and greater cultural, linguistic, political, social, economic and linguistic rights.

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An elderly Uyghur man – Image credit: Uyghur East Turkistan

How are the Uyghurs oppressed?

Since the onset of the seizing of East Turkestan, the Uyghurs have been suppressed by the PRC and the situation is getting worse:

How long has the oppression been going on for?

Since 1949, [when] the Communist party took over the authority from the local government of Xinjiang, they haven’t stopped the oppression over Uyghurs and Tibetans. There was a period between 1987-1990s when Uyghurs were relatively free. In this period, many books related to their identity, history, culture and religion were published. The Holy Quran [was] also translated into [the] Uyghur language. There were not so many requirements for the Uyghur Muslims and the tension between Uyghurs and [the] government was not so bad. After 2001, especially the Urumqi Protest in 2009, the oppression became worse than ever.

My interviewee “Mr X” was born in a town in the Xinjiang region but moved outside of the area to study before later leaving China. He has been living outside of China since 2014 due to the human rights situation:

The major reason for living outside China is because of my own safety and desire of freedom. Before I left China, I was arrested twice by the Chinese authorities because of sharing some photos about Chinese oppression in China on the Chinese media while I was at University. After my graduation, my family [were] afraid of my safety, they sent me to Turkey. Here I enrolled at University for my master program. But, however, while I was in Turkey, Chinese authorities contacted me many times. Finally, I came to Germany and seek asylum here.

The Uyghurs are up against a wall of oppressive policies. Some of the injustices in Xinjiang include the following policies/occurrences:

Further (much more detailed) information on restrictions and human rights abuses can be found in the Uyghur Human Rights Project report, which also includes information about (the small number of) Uyghur Christians and their persecution.

I asked Mr X about the restrictions facing Uyghurs as the Chinese government sent mixed messages (lies) regarding Ramadan this year, following new coverage of the issue:

This year China declared there would be no restrictions in fasting Ramadan – and also wished Muslims a Happy Ramadan – but reports coming out since have stated otherwise. What is the reality?

[…] the situation of Uyghurs who living in Xinjiang is different with other Muslims live in other part of China. In Xinjiang, people who are government officers, students, teachers anyone who works in Chinese authority and State controlled companies can not fast. And, in the day time, students and workers are asked to eat and drink. Only these people who are working private company or self-employed like farmers and businessman can fast freely. But, other part of China, there is no rule like this.

In addition to these restrictions, Uyghurs also suffer from lower living standards and claim to suffer discrimination against Han Chinese migrants when looking for work.

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Kashgar (Xinjiang) – Image credit: Uyghur East Turkistan

Why are the Uyghurs facing such oppression?

Political, ethnic, socio-economic, cultural and religious factors have merged into a crisis in which the daily reality for Uyghurs is that they have no real freedom of speech and expression, freedom of religion and no freedom to protest.

There are several issues surrounding the Uyghurs. The Chinese government sees three issues:

The Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) in May this year criticised China’s treatment of the Uyghurs and “at times violent crackdown” of Uyghurs in Xinjiang: “In 2015, the Chinese Communist Party tightened its internal ideology, elevating the crusade against the three evils, particularly with respect to religious freedom.” The Chinese government has been “cracking down” on the Uyghurs due to – according to USCIRF – what they conceive to be these “three evil forces”: ethnic separatism, religious extremism and violent terrorism.

Independence, Islam and Islamic extremism

The Chinese government claims that “Uyghur militants” are “waging a violent campaign for an independent state” when in reality this are exaggerated lies used to suppress this religious minority. In relation to national/ethnic separatism, some Uyghurs want an independent state whilst some simply just want more freedom and autonomy. Clearly China wants to maintain control over the region. Experts have pointed out two key reasons for this:

  • Xinjiang’s rich natural resources (oil and coal) – which a developing China needs
  • Xinjiang’s location as a “buffer zone” bordering Afghanistan and Pakistan

Bearing this in mind, and the fact that Xinjiang is three times the size of France and makes up 1/6th of Chinese State territory, the Chinese government do not want to give up the Xinjiang region to allow Uyghurs to recover the State of East Turkestan.

Since 9/11 and the “war on terror” the PRC joined the US in waging a war on Islamic extremism and raised concerns about Islamist links and outside radicalisation from Afghanistan, Chechnya and Pakistan. The fear of outside Islamist influence seeping in e.g. from Al Qaeda and potential terrorism is (in their minds) a real concern for the Chinese State. Al Qaeda for example has stated that it wanted to “recover” East Turkistan for it to form part of an Islamic Caliphate. Over the years, China has therefore been “cracking down” on what it believes to be religious extremism and terrorism:

China has vowed to crack down on what it calls religious extremism in Xinjiang, and regularly conducts “strike hard” campaigns including police raids on Uyghur households, restrictions on Islamic practices, and curbs on the culture and language of the Uyghur people, including videos and other material. But experts outside China say Beijing has exaggerated the threat from Uyghur “separatists” and that domestic policies are responsible for an upsurge in violence there that has left hundreds dead since 2012.

Source: Free Radio Asia (13/06/2016)

In 2014 for example, 32 Uyghurs were jailed for “spreading extremist content online and organising terror groups”, including building explosive devices. The Islamic extremist party – The East Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) – was accused by China of being responsible for a suicide attack in Tiananmen Square in 2013 and whilst is does have branches active in Syria and has been deemed responsible for terrorist attacks by the UN and US, it is not listed on the US government’s main list of Foreign Terrorist Organisations. Regardless of its unfortunate presence (like all Islamist parties), Uyghurs insist the Chinese government exaggerates the threat posed by ETIM in order to justify “repressive security” in the region and US reports appear to back this up:

China does not always distinguish between legitimate political dissent and the advocacy of violence to overthrow the government, and it has used counterterrorism as a pretext to suppress Uighurs.

China’s government characterised Uighur discontent, peaceful political activism, and some forms of religious observance as terrorist activity […]

Source: BBC (01/11/2013)

 Up to 300 militants are said to have become part of ISIS and officials claim that Uyghurs “join ISIS overseas and return to take part in terror plots”. Raffaelo Pantucci, a researcher for the defence think that Royal United Services Institute, admitted that although Muslims from Xinjiang could have gone over Syria and Iraq to fight as part of ISIS, the idea of people being able to return was more unlikely:

Whether individuals are able to make the journey all the way back seems difficult, especially given the difficulty people from Xinjiang seem to have in getting passports. […] We have seen numerous reports of foreigner fighters getting executed for trying to leave, including groups of Uighurs […]

There sadly have been stories of Uyghurs leaving China and joining ISIS or becoming involved in extremism. Muhammed Amin, an 80 year old jihadist who is thought to be a Uighur from China, went to Syria to join ISIS. He is quoted as saying: “I was subjected to oppression In Turkestan at the hands of the Chinese […] for 60 years and when I saw my son killed alongside the Mujahidin […] in a video I resolved to make Hijrah.” As sad as it is, he appeared in ISIS videos. One can never justify any form of terrorism. However, jihadism is not synonymous with being an Uyghur and neither is extremism simply an “Islamic problem”. Sadly, jihadis – young and old – have run off to Syria from all over the world. Despite what Islamophobes think, ISIS is not synonymous with Islam and (moderate or “normal” for want of better words) Muslims – like the Uyghurs – who simply want to live their lives and freely practice their religion in peace.

The small minority of extremists aside, China refuses to accept the Uyghur’s grievances – cultural, religious and linguistic oppression – simply blaming violent extremism (we do not deny there have been violent incidents) and any non-violent protest becomes labelled as “inciting separatism”. The State’s notion of gaining “stability” through anti-terrorist measures to ward of future attacks is equitable to oppression. Uyghurs are labelled “terrorists” by the Chinese government yet state they are simply protesting their freedom when taking to the streets to speak up against their lack of rights. Whilst we cannot support violent attacks (see here for further information), other testimony gives light to oppression of Chinese security forces during peaceful Uyghur demonstrations and the fact that this label of terrorist is simply a label to excuse oppression. As a result, thousands of Uyghurs are now fleeing China. News reports told of Uyghurs trapped in Thailand who had fled for reasons of persecution and went on hunger strike begging the Thai authorities to not send them back to China:

If we were returned back to China, we will face physical and emotional torture, and be killed or sentenced to stay in prison for life,” wrote the group calling itself For Freedom. “Therefore, we announced a hunger strike and thought it would be better to die from a hunger strike while in here. We will continue our hunger strike until we are freed or relocated to a third country or till we die here. […] We are not criminals […]

Uyghurs who flee are evidently not economic migrants – something proven clear from laptops and large amounts of cash hidden in bags found on Uyghurs who had fled to Thailand who say they fled violence in Xinjiang which is blamed on extremists (see here for video footage). Uyghurs fleeing China were accused of heading to Syria and Iraq as jihadis whilst they say they were fleeing persecution on route to Turkey – a country with which they share linguistic and cultural similarities.

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Uyghur Muslims being sent back to China from Thailand (2015) – Image credit: Prachatai

Even being in contact with Muslims outside of China can see you labelled as a “terror suspect”. Although Mr X has left China he could still not reveal his identity. There are many Uyghurs who have fled to Turkey and for Uyghurs abroad, surveillance is a reality. Mr X cannot freely communicate with his family even though he is now living in Germany where he is seeking asylum:

When I was in Turkey, I kept contact with most of my friend and family. According to their posts on the Chinese major social media, WeChat, I felt they were living under a tight control. They never share posts and pictures about Islam, politics and history of Uyghurs. Many friends deleted me from WeChat after they learnt I came to Germany as they told me that police always check their phone and it may cause problem to them if police found some one in abroad from their phone. My brothers told me never call their phone and I can only contact with them via WeChat, which is highly controlled by government and my brothers think this is for their safety. Because my mom can’t use social media, I call her phone once a week. But, we only discuss about each other health, like “Are you good?”, “I am good”, she never let me talk about my life in Germany. Just yesterday, I asked her what did you eat for suhur in Ramadan, she closed her phone.

Surprisingly, the Chinese constitution does grant some form of “freedom of religion” but with restrictions as religion is under state control and regulated in mind of national goals (communist) and national security. Religion is viewed as a private matter and where deemed necessary the state can intervene. Yet, whilst no one can support terrorist and violent behaviour (which as explained, is a small minority of incidents and does not represent the peaceful Sunni Sufi-esque Uyghur Muslims), this cannot explain how demonising a whole religious group and prohibiting Muslims from following their religion in a peaceful manner every day through veiling, fasting etc. is in line with “proportionate” security measures. In addition, this refusal to accept the need for change risks radicalising others:

The state’s refusal either to acknowledge the legitimacy of ongoing grievances or to make structural adjustments, as well as its abusive policies and zero-tolerance toward dissent, will not encourage submission to Beijing’s rule. It will likely radicalize more severe resistance tactics in the vacuum of avenues for nonviolent action and the presence of moderate voices offering cognitive liberation.

Source: Michael Caster (2014)

It is important to remember that oppression and violent ideology can go hand in hand when people feel voicelessSome Uyghurs, who have been unsuccessful in gaining asylum in foreign countries and have been treated poorly, have later become radicalised.

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Urumqi (Xinjiang) – Image credit: Uyghur East Turkistan

Protests, violence and Han Chinese migrants

An important element to consider socially, culturally, economically and politically is mass communist Chinese culture. The Uyghur community have not assimilated by and large with Chinese culture and the Han Chinese. They (quite rightly) maintain pride in their religious, ethnic and cultural (non-Chinese) heritage but feel that to “get on well in life” they have to follow the Chinese policy of “forced assimilation“. Since the influx of Han residents to Xinjiang, cultural and socio-economic tensions between Uyghurs and Han have grown as, due to the influx of Han migrant workers in the region, apparent negative attitudes towards Uyghurs by Han residents and discrimination in relation to housing, employment and education, Uyghurs feel economically disadvantaged and that the influx of migrant workers is “diluting their culture” towards the (dominant) Han (Chinese) culture. Mr X was keen to state that Han migration to Xinjiang had resulted in social problems: an increase in unemployment and an “imbalance in terms of resources between locals and migrants”, amongst other issues. This migration is encouraged and led by the Chinese government:

[…] most of the Chinese migrants are organised and transported by the State from the other parts of China. Yes, there are many Chinese [who] came to Xinjiang through their own choice, but most of them are encouraged/cheated/forced to migrate by be provided with housing, a salary, transport.

Between 1949 and 2008, the proportion of Han in Xinjiang rose dramatically from 6.7 percent (220,000) to 40 percent (8.4 million).

Mr X

According to figures in a study on internal Han internal migration to Xinjiang, in 1945, 82.7% of the population of Xinjiang were Uyghur (the dominant ethnic group), whilst Han Chinese made up 6.2% (Chaudhuri, 2005). By 2008, the number of Han Chinese had risen dramatically to 39.2% – making the Han the second largest group in Xinjiang, secondly only to the Uyghurs (46.1% of the population) (SBX, 2010). Findings in this research, undertaken in Urumqi in southern Xinjiang, found that contrary to the majority of previous research into “state orchestrated Han migration” – deemed responsible for inequality amongst the Uyghurs – the Uyghurs generally had a higher income due to their generally high level of education. This goes against the generic trend that the Han are generally “better off” than the Uyghurs. However, such research in any case does not negate prior opinion/findings and the fact that there is an increasing gap in terms of development between eastern and western China and that migratory movements/trends are shifting towards west bound movement, including both “state orchestrated migration” and also “self-initiated migration“.

Migrants in any fair, non-discriminatory form should be welcomed and citizens should have the freedom to move and earn a living if they so freely choose or need to. However, there have been tensions forming between the two ethnic groups. It is crucial to first understand these socio-economic and cultural tensions to then understand their relation to unfortunate violent events between the State, security forces and both Han and Uyghur residents. On 5th July 2009, Uyghur citizens led (what were) initially small and apparently peaceful protests in the city of Urumqi (Xinjiang) to protest what they believed to be officials’ “indifference” towards the Uyghurs. Following a rape accusation (believed to be unfounded), two migrant Uyghur workers were killed by two Han citizens in another region in Southern China. News and rumours spread and Uyghurs believed more Uyghurs had been killed, causing the Uyghurs to blame the government of “indifference” (see here). China however blames the influence of Uyghurs living in exile abroad, Uyghur “rioters” and “ethnic separatists”. Rebiya Kadeer (President of The World Uyghur Congress) was accused of “instigating riots” by the PRC but strongly denies this, claiming that protesters were holding Chinese flags and demanding their civil rights and equality under the law. Sadly though, Uyghur gangs started to attack Han residents. Police began raiding Uyghur homes and detaining Uyghur residents, leading to a big conformation between Uyghurs and security forces as Uyghur women protested the detention of their sons and husbands.

Events took a turn for the worse as Han launched “revenge attacks”. Police finally intervened, letting off tear gas and arresting Han attackers. As a result many Uyghurs were saved but some witnesses claim that some police officers “just stood by”. The government actually later admitted shooting dead 12 Uyghur riotersUyghur exiles state that peaceful demonstrators were killed by the police. Information on 1400+ detained Uyghurs and those who died is lacking. Almost 200 people were killed during the July 2009 violent conflict. One witness stated: “an estimated 800 to 1000 people, most of them Uighurs, were shot to death during that one and a half hour period of time. For this reason, the Turkish Prime Minister compared this violence to genocide.”

Violence cannot be accepted by either locals (whether Uyghur or Han) or State authorities. However, when Journeyman Pictures travelled to Xinjiang in attempt to investigate violent incidents, they were met by constant State restrictions: allegations of a lack of “permits”, guards, surveillance and security checks. The reporter stated their team had been “harassed unrelentingly all the way. […] For people that live here, this is their daily life experience”. High security is a constant presence in Xinjiang. In a one-off chance to speak to Uyghurs themselves, they stated there was “no freedom” and speech of “equality” is simply “lies”.  An Open Democracy report on violent (unconfirmed) incidents in 2013, written by Henryk Szadziewski with the assistance of Michael Phillips from World Uyghur Congress in gathering data, states that 219 people died in Xinjiang in that year – most of which were Uyghur civilians killed by Chinese security forces. These incidents were listed in terms of cause as the following: ethnic confrontation (2), security measures (10), religious (7), unknown (5) and forced demolition (1).

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Urumqi (Xinjiang) – Image credit: Uyghur East Turkistan

Not “Chinese enough” – Uyghur Muslims vs. Hui Muslims

The PRC wants political control. Where groups appear to have assimilated, hold no political aspirations and do not criticise the State, they are seen as less of a “threat” and are therefore unless less religious/cultural restrictions. This is visibly clear if we compare two different Muslim groups – the Uyghurs with the Hui Muslims.

Hui Muslims are ethnically Chinese and their language is Mandarin. Whilst the Uyghurs locally live in the Xinjiang area, the Hui are mostly located in the North West and inland. They also belong to the autonomous region of Ningxia – although they are more “spread-out” across China than the Uyghurs. Hui Muslims use Islamic texts in Mandarin Chinese and have adopted a more “Chinese identity”. Some Hui themselves are no longer Muslim and marriage amongst Hui Muslims and non-Muslims is also practiced – while this remains uncommon with Uyghurs (the Chinese State introduced incentives to encourage mix marriage between Han Chinese and Uyghurs). The Uyghurs, who are not Chinese (in ethnic, historical or cultural terms) and are “East Turkestani”, do not associate with being Chinese (they are not!). Uyghurs want to be able to maintain their culture, history and traditions – whether as an independent state or simply under the Xinjiang region. Erkin Alptekin, President of the World Uyghur Congress in Berlin, explains the colonialist Chinese policy: “The Chinese want to replace us with their own people as colonists, and assimilate those of us who remain, wiping out our culture.”

The link between religion and national-cultural identity is what makes a stark difference in terms of religious freedom. Hui Muslims enjoy a relatively free practice of Islam, in stark contrast to that of Uyghur Muslims. This year for example, the Chinese government announced that there would be no ban on fasting this year and opening hours of halal restaurants but the story is not so clear cut. Hui Muslims have been free to fast, whilst there are still restrictions in Xinjiang. Businesses in Xinjiang have been forced to stay open and those studying or working for the state cannot fast. According to Mr X, unlike the Uyghurs, Hui can freely: wear hijab, have beards, fast, publish books and have religious schools where Hui Muslims and their children can learn and teach about Islam and the Arabic language. All of these activities are “forbidden to Uyghurs” according to Mr X. Additionally, whilst going to perform hajj has become increasingly difficult for Uyghurs, an increasing number of Hui Muslims are going. In essence, the region of Ningxia with the Hui is of absolute stark difference to the experiences of Mr X:

Throughout Ningxia and the adjacent Gansu Province, new filigreed mosques soar over even the smallest villages, adolescent boys and girls spend their days studying the Quran at religious schools, and muezzin summon the faithful via loudspeakers — a marked contrast to mosques in Xinjiang, where the local authorities often forbid amplified calls to prayer.

In Hui strongholds like Linxia, a city in Gansu known as China’s “Little Mecca”, there are mosques on every other block and women can sometimes be seen with veils, a sartorial choice that can lead to detention in Xinjiang.

Mr X – when asked him about Islamophobia and other religious groups in China – explained that he didn’t think China was Islamophobic per se but that the problem is that the Chinese government sees political aspirations as a threat, i.e. the more political a group, the bigger a problem they are for the state and here lies the difference between different religious groups such as Hui and Uyghur Muslims:

Why do you believe the Chinese state is so anti-Islam? The State oppresses religion minorities […]. Do Muslims simply fit into this bracket of religious minorities or do you believe there is a higher level of Islamophobia within the government?

[…] firstly […] China is dominated by Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the goal of communism is to wipe religion and class from the world. […] CCP […] sees every religion as threat to their authority. So, CCP’s […] major task is to control […] religion and force them to work with them.

Secondly, CCP [is] very afraid of people’s union that people may overthrow the government. CCP never allow their people including minority groups to establish political party and groups. So, they [are] afraid […] that people [may] come together by religions and rise against the authority. So, that is why they go on oppression on religious groups as well as political groups.

[…] I do not think that the Government is Islamophobic. […] There is a big difference between [the] Government’s attitude towards Uyghur Muslims and Hui people. The news about oppression on Muslims of China you heart actually is about Uyghur Muslims. Hui Muslims have better condition than Uyghurs. For example, they can open schools to learn Quran, Religion and Arab language. They can teach their children about religion and can freely pray in the mosque with their children and these are impossible for Uyghurs in Xinjiang. And, some Hui woman also can wear niqab which sees as symbol of radicalism in Xinjiang (there was a report about […] a man who has beard and a lady who wear niqab were sent to jail). The major reason of this because Hui Muslims are mostly like Chinese, they speak Chinese, [their] culture is Chinese, [they] looks like Chinese and they [are] loyal to Chinese government. But; Uyghurs are an independent nation culturally, ethnically and linguistically […] Uyghurs […] still struggle for their independence and identity.  That’s why government continues their oppression on Uyghur Muslims but not on Hui Muslims.

Raymond Lee, a specialist in Chinese affairs from the Al Jazeera Centre for Studies, explains how the difference between religion and national-cultural identity is what constitutes how much religious freedom a group is granted and this is why Hui Muslims have greater religious freedom: “The PRC central authorities do not view their Islamic faith as a potential hazard to the government because most of them primarily identify themselves as Chinese. That is the reason why fewer religious constraints are imposed on the Hui people.”

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A Hui worshipper strolling through the courtyard of Daqingzhen Si, Xian (Shaanxi) – Image credit: Peter Morgan

China wants to maintain a good public image and trade with many Muslim nations yet as a State its main goal is political dominance at all costs. Comparing to other religious minorities such as the Falun Gong who have been severely persecuted, we once again see that if a religious group does not criticism the government, holds no political goals and is “loyal to them” then they will not face oppression, as explained by Mr X:

As far as I know, there are, of course, some Chinese are against with religion, especially with Islam. I always read posts from […] Weibo that humiliate Islam and Muslims. But, the Chinese officials normally do not care about these [sic] kind of information. And, there is no group or agenda of anti-religion that officially registered. But, there are some groups on the internet called themselves as anti-Islam warriors to humiliate Islam and its believers.

[…] in the past there were many Fa Lun Gong believers spread messages about anti-CCP dictatorship. So, they got oppressed by China. And, to the Christians, actually government didn’t carry oppression on these Christians who accepted government’s control, didn’t have any political background or goals and loyal to them (just like Hui Muslims).

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Urumqi (Xinjiang) – Image credit: Uyghur East Turkistan

Conclusions – where do things go from here?

Essentially, the role of religion in this crisis is not one of terrorism but one of national, socio-cultural identity intertwined with politics. China, in seeing how religion forms part of the Uyghurs identity (one different from typical Chinese identity), and in wanting a unified Communist state – wants to suppress the Uyghurs religious freedom in order to stem political growth and ethnic separatism. China wants Xinjiang – not an East Turkestan – and to do so has to demonise the “other” as terrorist and “water down” or simply control religion. When I first interviewed Mr X, I expected the oppression to be based on an anti-religious agenda. I was therefore shocked when I learnt how the Chinese government views the Uyghurs and what they consider the “threat” they pose to be:

Many of reporters believe that the problem between Uyghur and government is about religion or culture. I believe that actually [the] State’s biggest problem about is separatism. Even the government claims every violence attack by Uyghurs as terrorist attack, but the true is most of the attack caused by the highly oppression on the religion and culture above Uyghurs. And, the major reason for this because, most of the Uyghurs want claim their independence from China. And, this desire became stronger after Central Asian countries, which are owning the same root on ethnically and the same belief on religion, got independence from Soviet Union. To get this great goal, Uyghurs believe the culture and religion are most powerful weapon. So, since CCP take over the land from Uyghurs, Chinese government started to destroy the identity of Uyghurs on culture and religion to prevent the separatism movement. However, their oppression causes strong dissatisfaction and resistance.

In an article for Al Jazeera last year, Usaid Siddiqui wrote exactly the same thing:

It is erroneous to conclude that the Uighur crisis is solely religious. […] The Uighur nationalists’ desire for more autonomy has long been at odds with China’s centralization policy. If anything, Chinese authorities are using the ‘war on terrorism’ as a cover to demolish the Uighur people’s nationalist aspirations.

This scenario is the same as the Tibetan cause but in this case, as it is a Muslim cause, the Uyghurs have received less public sympathy. I asked Mr X if he felt there was any public sympathy for the Uyghur cause amongst other Chinese citizens or other people worldwide and he felt there wasn’t. For many Uyghurs, fleeing abroad is their only hope. Like many Uyghurs, Mr X left for a life of freedom outside of China due to the worsening situation and now lives in Germany. I was keen to see his views on the future and what he believes it may hold for himself and the Uyghurs in China:

Are things getting better or is it all simply lies?

No, things are getting worse day by day. Too many people left from the country in recent years and the control became more tighter than ever.

How do you see the future for your people and for yourself?

I am not very optimistic about the future of Uyghurs as I saw bad news from the media and Chinese social media. I don’t think the oppression will end soon. […] like most […] Uyghurs, I also desire an independent Uyghur state which based on democracy and freedom where our problem gets solved. Since this is like a day dream, I hope at least China become a democratic country and stop oppression and assimilation above [all to] Uyghurs. To my future, AlhamduliAllah I came to Germany and I live in freedom. But, I want to go back to my home if the situation gets better and there is no danger to my life.

As with an ever increasing number of Uyghurs living in exile abroad, Mr X has had to separate himself from his home, his friends and family. Even abroad, he is not free to express his identity and disdain for the Chinese State. Yet without hearing the voices of Uyghurs, the situation carries on and China buries more skeletons even deeper into its closet. For  experts such as Raymond Lee, who concludes that to stop the “intensifying” violence and worsening situation which is due to various short and long term factors (social issues, a rapidly changing society, ethnic cleavage and Islamic activism clashing with Chinese security), China must greatly improve Uyghur living standards and be more tolerant towards Uyghur Islamic identity rather than enforcing assimilationist policies:

[…] China should […] respect the Uyghurs’ Muslim identity not only in the cultural but also in the political sphere. Such a concession could pave the way for granting more autonomy rights […] . Next, Beijing should elevate the Uyghurs’ underprivileged status by improving their living standards, promoting Islamic values, and employing extensive preferential policies. […]  Beijing should […] construct an equal, respectful, and harmonious interethnic relationship between Han Chinese and the Uyghur minority. […] a democratic political institution is needed. […]

China is far from being a democratic political institution – that is something we all know – and its mass Communist State culture is one of united political, social and cultural identity with no form of difference, variation or individual expression. It does not allow for a truly multicultural model, which would provide a model of national political, social and intercultural co-identity based on a set of shared values including tolerance and diversity and collaborative shared history/future. The Chinese government does not allow for true minority rights. What is needed is greater rights and autonomy. For some Uyghurs, independence is the answer and their dream.

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Chinese police in Urumqi – Image credit: Dai Luo

How can we help?

Well, I believe the region should be free and go back to being East Turkistan but that is a different rather more political issue! In more immediate practical terms how can we help end the suppression of the Uyghurs in China itself?

There are a variety of ways in which you can help. As suggested by Mr X who is an online activist himself, you can:

Rebiya Kadeer (of WUC) has long fought for the rights of Uyghurs in China. She herself spent six years in prison in China before being granted leave to go to the USA for medical treatment, where she now lives in the USA with her husband. She has been twice nominated for the Noble Peace Prize and was the focus of the documentary “The 10 Conditions of Love” which looks at her life and work fighting for Uyghur human rights. This worth a watch and is a good introduction.

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WUC President Rebiya Kadeer and her husband Sidiq Rouzi – Image credit: Uyghur East Turkistan

For other news, you can visit: Radio Free Asia where there are a wide range of articles (as you will see in my list of resources below). And finally, here’s one final message from Mr X:

Please, do not forget to pray for us. […] happy Ramadan to my Muslim brothers and sister in the world.

So, please spread the wordre-blog, tweet, post and raise your voice!

Eid Mubarak and salam!

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Image credit: www.futureatlas.com

Acknowledgments

I’d like to thank Mr X for his participation and his openness in sharing his story and that of the Uyghur people.

I wish him, his family and the Uyghur community all the very best for the future.

Credits, sources and further information

Feature image: Uyghur East Turkistan

For a list of credits, sources and further information, the bibliography is available to download in PDF format

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Why do we never hear so much about International Men’s Day…? Here’s why!

woman-704221.jpgIt’s International Women’s Day on March 8th. “Why do we never really hear about International Men’s Day?!” you and many others may ask. “If women and men are equal and human rights are universal then why do we have two separate days?!” others may profess…Well, you see the reality is this: human rights aren’t just a woman’s issue – they aren’t about men vs. women and are instead about universal rights as a global human issue. However, the truth of the matter is that such days raise awareness about different issues affecting the different sexes and as a whole women remain more vulnerable, more abused and at greater risk of exploitation than menInternational Men’s Day focuses on men’s health whilst International Women’s Day focuses on women’s achievements and calls us to keep on fighting the ongoing battle for equality.

That is the reality – women are not treated equally. The introduction of the United Nations Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) wasn’t to “prioritise women” – it wasn’t against the universal nature of human rights – it was to address needs specific to women and to fight against further abuses directly affecting women and girls. No one would deny that men are at risk (and in some cases at an increasing risk) of forced labour, sexual exploitation, poverty, abuse etc. but as it stands – women’s rights are a big issue that we still need to keep high on the agenda – and here’s a few reasons why…

Gender based human rights abuses

  • Reproductive rights/maternal healthcare – women need adequate access to contraception, pre- and post-natal care and facilities. According to the UN Population Fund: “[…] 830 women still die every day from causes related to pregnancy or childbirth. This is about one woman every two minutes”. Along with the right to life and health, States have to additionally ensure women’s/girl’s access to education and privacy (see here for more information).
  • Literacy rates – a lack of education and poverty go hand in hand and women remain severely disadvantaged due to economic, social and cultural barriers:

774 million adults (15 years and older) still cannot read or write – two-thirds of them (493 million) are women. Among youth, 123 million are illiterate of which 76 million are female. Even though the size of the global illiterate population is shrinking, the female proportion has remained virtually steady at 63% to 64%. (UNESCO)

  • Worker rights – women worldwide face battles with maternity pay, lower wages and access to employment (beyond simply being underrepresented in politics and business) due to discrimination and in some cases may face sexual harassment. The reality is this: “women make up 40% of the global workforce, yet make less than their male counterparts in every country on Earth” (ILRF).

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  • Poverty – many of the inequalities and lack of care women face regarding reproductive health, education and work rights perpetuate further injustice. This isn’t simply having inadequate access to  bras and sanitary protection:

While both men and women suffer in poverty, gender discrimination means that women have far fewer resources to cope. They are likely to be the last to eat, the ones least likely to access healthcare, and routinely trapped in time-consuming, unpaid domestic tasks. They have more limited options to work or build businesses. Adequate education may lie out of reach. Some end up forced into sexual exploitation as part of a basic struggle to survive. (UN Women)

  • Sex trafficking – women are most affected by human slavery. This may involve forced labour but is most often forced prostitution. This is increasingly affecting men but women are still the main victims of sex trafficking (see here for more information). Women trapped in poverty may be offered “a way out” through the promise of a job in another country and find themselves trapped and “in debt” –  abroad, raped, beaten,  alone and scared.
  • Forced marriage – women and young girls  (children!)  are forced/sold into marriage.  1 out of every 9 girls under the age of 15 in the developing world is married.
  • Domestic violence – whilst men are also victims of domestic violence and other forms of domestic abuse (emotional, spiritual and financial abuse for example), it’s important to educate others about this. Women are still more likely to be victims of domestic violence.

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  • Rape – rape occurs within marriage (forced or non forced marriage), it can also be date-rape, forced prostitution or violent crime by strangers but it is also a weapon of war used to humiliate, control and physically, psychologically and emotionally abuse women and girls:

In Liberia, which is slowly recovering after a 13-year civil war, a government survey in 10 counties in 2005-2006 showed that 92% of the 1,600 women interviewed had experienced sexual violence, including rape. (UN Office of The High Commissioner (OHCHR))

  • Acid attacks – Acid attacks are a means to control and humiliate women. Perhaps she rejected your proposal, perhaps you don’t think she’s modest enough, perhaps you were jealous… Whatever the reason, wherever the place – they constitute a severe physical and physiological trauma and the worst part is that they aren’t rare . In the UK the number of hospital admissions for cases of acid attacks has almost doubled in the last 10 years.
  • Honour killings – Women aren’t only being abused by their partners sexually, physically, emotionally, spiritually and financially but are also being killed by their own families. Every year, 5,000 honour killings are reported worldwide (UN). Brothers, fathers, uncles, even mothers commit murder to maintain the “honour” of the family and thus the female relative’s blood is on their hands and her life is lost (see here for more information).
  • Female genital mutilation – across the women and young girls are having parts of their genitals cut and removed in order to control their sexuality, preserve their honour and thus increase their eligibility for marriage. This practice causes immense psychological and physical trauma and can even result in death. See my article on female genital mutilation for more information.

So, there it is – a brief summary of some of the discrimination and abuse that women face worldwide. In reality, whilst every human is endowed with civil, political, cultural, economic and social rights; women face a greater variety of barriers due to discrimination and differing needs – for example regarding reproductive rights and health care. Many factors go hand in hand. If a girl is married too young due to cultural customs and does not receive adequate health care, if a family is poor and struggling, she will no longer go to school and will stay at home caring for the family. As such she may not only be limited regarding work opportunities but in fact living in a cycle of poverty where she remains vulnerable to sexual exploitation and further physical and psychological harm.

While human rights are universal, putting this into practice in relation to women’s needs and the discrimination they face, requires fighting for women’s equality as a specific issue. Feminism and women’s rights movements are not about advancing women to a status above men but simply to the same position as men – which in itself is a still a position in a world of injustice. International Women’s Day is a day for the world to recognise women’s achievements and to remind us to fight for women’s equality against injustice.  We’re not one single sex but we are one humanity. It’s fundamental that men become more involved in the fight for women’s rights. Men, women, girls and boys must fight against injustice for each and every one of them. Equality is the end goal. Men and women are different. Reproductive rights is just one evidence of this but we are equal; equal in dignity and equal in humanity.

Salam!

Image credits:

Megara Tegal (Flickr) (CC) (feature image), Alexandra Loves (Pixabay) (CC), Carlos Lorenzo (Flickr) (CC), Gregory Kowalski (Flickr) (CC)

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21-36 Million Slaves in the “Modern” World – Did You Know about Them?

This January it’s Slavery and Human Trafficking Awareness and Protection Month. Human trafficking is modern day slavery and is something that most of us have heard about. In 2014 The Global Slavery Index estimated that there are 21-36 million people worldwide living in slavery. This is in spite of human rights legislation – The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, which comes under The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the criminalisation of human trafficking in 90% of countries worldwide (UNODC, 2014). Human trafficking is a widespread severe problem which moves within and across regions nationally and internationally:

The crime of trafficking in persons affects virtually every country in every region of the world. Between 2010 and 2012, victims with 152 different citizenships were identified in 124 countries across the globe (UNODC, 2014).

So, who are these people? How old are they? What work are they forced into and by whom? Well here’s the lowdown on the issue of modern slavery with some key facts from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s (UNODC) latest report (2014). Of course though, due to its nature we can’t know the real number and nature for sure of people living in this hell…

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  1. 49% of human trafficking victims are women (21% are girls, 18% are men and 12% are boys) (2011) but the number of women being trafficked is decreasing. 
  2. The number of detected child victims is increasing1 in 3 victims of human trafficking is a child. If you break that down by gender – 2 out of 3 child victims are girls.
  3. A greater number of male victims are being detected.
  4. Forms of exploitation include: sexual exploitation, forced labour, servitude and “slavery like” work and organ removal.
  5. Most victims are victims of sexual exploitation (mostly women) but other forms are increasing.
  6. Forced labour accounted for 40% of trafficking victims between 2010-2012 and is increasing. Forced labour includes: domestic work, textile production, cleaning and domestic work, catering and working in restaurants, construction, manufacturing and textile production.
  7. “Mixed exploitation” other than just sexual exploitation or forced labour includes for the purpose of: committing crime, begging, making pornography (including online pornography), benefit fraud, baby selling, illegal adoption, forced marriage, armed combat and for rituals.
  8. Females are mostly exploited for sexual purposes (79%), whilst for males it’s forced labour (83%) (2010-12).
  9. Children for example are used as child soldiers and beggars. Child trafficking is common in Sub-Saharan Africa. Children are being used as soldiers in Central and West Africa.
  10. In the Middle East and North Africa nearly all victims detected are adults.
  11. 1/3 victims is exploited in their own country of citizenship.
  12. In the Americas, South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific forced labour is the most common reason behind human trafficking.
  13. In Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Western and Central Europe most victims are exploited for sexual purposes.
  14. Transnational trafficking makes up almost 25% of all trafficking flows and isn’t as common as domestic or intraregional trafficking.
  15. When traffickers traffic people abroad – they are usually their own fellow citizens.
  16. 72% of convicted traffickers are men. 
  17. Proportionally, women are convicted for trafficking more than most other crimes.

You hear about it in the news: prostitution in Europe, domestic servants in the Middle East, forced labour in Asia but there are many complex patterns and changes in trends. We need to raise awareness and get our voices heard to say “no” to human trafficking and “yes” to change.

Campaigning and awareness raising

So what can we do to get involved with the fight against human trafficking? Here’s a few tips:

  • Raise awareness online – blog, tweet and use hashtags. Free the Slaves have produced Facebook and Twitter cover photos you can download and upload on your social media profiles and are promoting the following hashtags: #freetheslaves #endslavery #humantrafficking
  • Donate to and/or volunteer with relevant NGOs such as Free the Slaves, Stop The Traffik and Polaris Project. You can find a list of other relevant NGOs here
  • Sign the 50 For Freedom Campaign petition
  • Take part in Stop the Traffick’s campaigns and check out their tips
  • Those of you in the USA can email members of Congress.
  • If you’re in the UK write to your local MP and check out APPG
  • If you’re elsewhere – write to local authorities/organisations/MPs
  • Sign one of many petitions available online on Change.org
  • Donate your old phones to Phones4Freedom to help anti-trafficking activists and survivors
  • Check out the other tips available online here
  • Get creative and come up with fundraising and awareness raising events

As always – get noticed, get heard and fight to #endslavery and #freetheslaves! No to #humantrafficking

Salam!

Information Source:

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2014) Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 

Free the Slaves also have a free factsheet which you can download from their website.

*Images are re-published under a Creative Commons licence

10 Reasons Why We Need Human Rights

This 10th December is Human Right’s Day – marking the date when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted in 1948. It’s often been said that many of us take our rights and freedoms for granted. The term “human rights” has become a bit of a “buzz word” amongst the kind of people who love to add their comments to Daily Mail articles or on Facebook articles: “Oh not the EU and human rights!” What springs to their mind is: “terrorist extremists sponging of the state along with their families” or “we’re bending over backwards for minorities”.

Well that’s not what human rights are. Human rights offer us safety, freedom and protection. Here’s ten reasons why we NEED human rights legislation, courts, lawyers and campaigners. Of course, there are hundreds of thousands of reasons and cases but here’s a few to get us going (in no particular order).

1. Slavery, human trafficking and sexual exploitation

Forced labour, imprisonment, prostitution and human trafficking are grave issues. Slavery may have already been abolished but it’s still going on today – WORLDWIDE. According to the West Midland’s Police (UK):

Human trafficking is the most profitable crime in the world, second only to drugs. It is also a growing crime in the UK with victims exploited in four main ways – forced labour, sexual exploitation, domestic servitude and benefit fraud.

One recent new story is of Karla Jacinto – a victim of human trafficking who was lured away at the age of 12, having already been subjected to sexual abuse since the age of five by a family member. Karla was forced to work as a prostitute in Mexico and was eventually rescued by police in 2008 as part their anti-trafficking work. She confesses she was raped 43, 200 times. The horror is unimaginable.

2. Violations against freedom of speech, expression, assembly and association

lmagine living in a country where you’re unable to express your own personal and political beliefs, unable to go on peaceful demonstrations, unable to “hold an opinion”… No protesting the Syrian war, no protesting benefit cuts, no having your say… Worldwide, it’s happening – China, Venezuela, Crimea, the USA even… Take Venezuela as an example – 2014 was quoted as being “the worst year for freedom of expression” with 350 cases and 579 violations (the highest figure in 20 years) affecting journalists and those working in the media as well as members of NGOs, human rights activists and civilians:

As far as the attacks and threats against journalists and photo journalists went, the report indicated that the majority came while covering public protests. These acts of aggression included beatings, pellet shots, tear gas attacks, detainments, the confiscation of cameras and cellphones, the destruction of audiovisual and photographic material, and intimidation.

This is not an unfamiliar site if you switch on the TV news and do some research.

3. Torture, arbitrary arrest, detention or exile and restrictions against freedom of movement within and outside your own country  

Following online and offline activism – peaceful protests, blogging online, newspaper journalism, political activism – human rights defenders and regime opponents or those simply in the wrong place at the wrong time could end up being locked up and subject to torture (physical, emotional, sexual and spiritual abuse/neglect) including sexual assault and malnutrition. There’s also the case of those who are never brought to trial – whether guilty or innocent of their supposed crime(s).

Let’s take Guantanamo Bay as an example. May inmates have even never been taken to trial, are subject to torture and continue to protest their innocence. The latest news story was that of Shakeer Aamer. Shakeer was imprisoned in Guantanamo for 14 years without trial and subject to torture. Shakeer always protested his innocence – he was detained when working in Afghanistan for an Islamic charity. He was recently able to return home to the UK to be with his family. For the first time in his life he was able to meet his youngest son – aged 14.

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4. Asylum seekers

You’re fleeing religious or political persecution, torture and death, war, genocide – no safety, no peace, no security, no home… You’re a political opponent, a victim of war, a persecuted minority… British Red Cross figures from 2014 state that 52% of the worlds refugees come from four countries – with the numbers of people per country as following:

  • Syria:3 million
  • Afghanistan:7 million
  • Somalia:1 million
  • Sudan:670,000
  • South Sudan:508,000

The conflict in Syria has been and continues to be devastating, as in various other countries with ongoing conflict. Some asylum seekers however flee their countries for fear of their life due to political oppression. There are many stories – for example that of Berthe Patricia Nganga from Congo Brazzaville who fled her country in 2003 and was granted leave to remain in the UK in 2011. Berthe and her family were subject to political persecution.

“[…] being an asylum seeker is not an easy life.  I was a paediatric nurse in Congo Brazzaville, working in the local hospital and in my mother’s chemist. She was killed by the government because she didn’t support them. Then in 1998, my husband fled the country, because he was part of the opposition party too. […]People were after me […] so I had to get away.”

Once a refugee arrives in a host country, they can legally apply for asylum. Whilst seeking asylum, you cannot work but you are not “illegal” or undocumented (see further asylum seeker myths here). There are many more cases. Those at risk and in danger deserve a safe home. #refugeeswelcome

5. Discrimination and unequal protection before the law 

Restrictions of any humans rights based upon race, ethnicity, religion, etc. include:

  • The situation of the Roma and their (lack of) rights and provisions regarding housing and education in Romania.
  • The rights of the Rohingya in Myanmar and their lack of citizenship as just one example.

6. Violations to the right to privacy

There’s been a lot of concern concerning government “snooping” and anti-terrorist measures. Recently, an EU court declared that The National Security Agency is “violating the privacy rights of millions of Europeans”.

7. Divided families

At this very moment across the UK, Europe and worldwide, (potential) husbands, wives, mothers, fathers and children are separated – with their right to marriage and family life violated – due to visa restrictions. They are Divided families – Skype families. There’s an array of families who are divided due to financial restrictions. In the UK for example you need to earn minimum £18,600 (excluding added “fees” per each child) to be eligible to sponsor your spouse to come to the UK. Third party sponsors are not permitted and property and job status are not taken into consideration (there are exemptions however if you are a carer or disabled). For many, marriage is the odd holiday the couple can afford, text messages, phone calls and Facebook, Skype and What’s App time.  Many children are separated from their mommy or daddy.

8. Restrictions on religious freedom

Many religious communities worldwide are not free to practice their religion and follow their religious and spiritual beliefs. One example is China’s Muslim minority – the Uighur Muslims in the autonomous region of Xinjiang who have felt the increasing level of religious restrictions. Last Ramadan, government workers, teachers, professors and students were “banned” from fasting and “banquets” were held to “test” if Muslims were fasting or not. Women are also banned from wearing face veils, men are not permitted to have beards and shopkeepers are forced to sell alcohol.

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9. Inadequate social provision/recognition of disability

Due to the global economic crisis, government budgets have tightened – including the lowering of social security provisions. There has been a lot of concern concerning welfare provisions in the UK and a series of deaths (including suicide) of vulnerable adults. The UDHR underlines the right to an adequate standard of living and security including food, clothing, social and medical care – outlining cases of unemployment, disability and old age etc. (Article 25). Whilst many countries have no social security systems and/or a lack of care, it has been confirmed  by the UN that the UK has violated the rights of disabled citizens. In fact, figures from the UK Department of Work and Pensions (DWP) state that:

Nearly 90 people a month are dying after being declared fit for work.

The figures are truly shocking. The State is obliged to care for and protect its citizens.

10. Child soldiers and child labour

Children should be in school, enjoying their younger years. According to the UDHR, they are entitled in minimum terms to free (compulsory) elementary education (Article 26). Children do not belong in war. Children are being used as spies and suicide bombers in Afghanistan and soldiers in Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic (to name just a few examples).  In addition, although the number has decreased, there are 168 million children worldwide working in child labour.

So there we have it – ten of just many reasons why human rights legislation, courts, protocols and campaigners are essential. So, what can you do to help you may ask?

  • Sign online petitions, blog, tweet and and right letters (see my article about Amnesty International’s Write to Rights Campaign this month)
  • Organise talks and events
  • Fundraise and donate to NGOs
  • Volunteer your time and skills within NGOs
  • Join local and university human rights groups to collaborate together
  • Start a career in human rights – become a human rights lawyer, campaigner, fundraiser etc. or you could lend your skills to bodies and organisations through other professional means – translation, interpreting and journalism to name just a few roles.

Research your cause, brainstorm, design your strategy and make a set of goals. Get out there or online and spread the word and raise awareness! Happy campaigning folks!

Salam!

For information on human rights law see:

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The European Convention of Human Rights

The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime

Convention on the Rights of the Child

The Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict

Image credits:

Images are shared under a Creative Commons licence

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